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Construction of base layers A strong base for the upper road structure The bottom layer essentially comprises an unbound mixture of coarse and fine crushed stone as well as crushed sand to achieve the desired load bearing capacity and absorb traffic loads so that the underlying subgrade is not deformed A gravel layer protects against frost

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A road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic such as a road or walkway In the past gravel road surfaces cobblestone and granite setts were extensively used but these surfaces have mostly been replaced by asphalt or concrete laid on a compacted base course

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Gravel is added in layers and machines roll over the surface to compact and The most common materials used for paving roads are asphalt and concrete

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This diagram shows a typical pavement design The pavement structure is comprised of many layers The bottom most layer is the existing soil or sub grade The next layer is an aggregate base layer This layer is sometimes stabilized with asphalt cement or fly ash This is followed by one or more layers of asphalt pavement The bottom layer of

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Typical Road Structure Cross Section Elements Sub base sub grade base course surface course road section asphalt road cross section flexible road internal structure Highway Engineering Location Survey for Roads Urban Highway Location Types of Road

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AASHTO Pavement Thickness Design Guide Pt 2 00 for Secondary Roads Local Residential Streets f Layer coefficients Structural layer coefficients ai are required for flexible pavement design A value for these coefficients is assigned to each layer material in the pavement structure in order to convert actual layer thickness

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This diagram shows a typical pavement design The pavement structure is comprised of many layers This is followed by one or more layers of asphalt pavement The bottom layer of the asphalt pavement is often called the base lift course The asphalt and is

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Hot rolled asphalt roadbase has been discontinued design sub base alone or sub base plus capping layer and one flexible design for the structural layer

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Asphalt concrete commonly called asphalt blacktop or work site where experienced layers empty the mixer and either machine or hand lay the mastic asphalt contents on to the road Mastic asphalt concrete is generally laid to a thickness of around 3 ⁄ 4 –1 3 ⁄ 16 inches 20–30 mm for footpath and road applications and around 3

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Most asphalt surfaces are laid on a gravel base which is generally at least as thick as the asphalt layer although some 39 full depth 39 nbsp

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EVALUATION OF BOND STRENGTH BETWEEN PAVEMENT LAYERS By Randy C West Assistant Director National Center for Asphalt Technology Auburn University Auburn Alabama Jingna Zhang Research Engineer National Center for Asphalt Technology

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